Impacts Of Improved Transport System On The Air Quality Of Dhaka

Impacts Of Improved Transport System On The Air Quality Of Dhaka

Name of the Project :
Impacts Of Improved Transport System On The Air Quality Of Dhaka
Country:  Bangladesh
Project Location:  All over Bangladesh Professional staff  provided
By the company : 150
Name of Client: Ministry of Science and Information & Communication Technology, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh No. of man-months : 12
Start Date (month/year):  July 2005 Completion Date(month/year):
June 2006
Approx. value of services: 2.9  Million Taka
Name of Associate Firm, if any: Bangladesh Center for Development Research. No. of man-months of professional staff provided by associate firm(s):
    No. : 70 Man-month:  12
Senior Staff Involved and Functions Performed:
Prof. Dr. Abul Kalam Azad
Prof. Mahfuzur Rahman
Dr.  M Asaduzzaman
Dr.  Md  Rezaul karim
Prof. Abul Kalam Azad
Team Leader
Economist
Biologist
Engineer
Environmental Scientist
Detailed Narrative Description of Project:
The rapid expansion of Dhaka’s population has brought tremendous pressures on its infrastructure as well as on the existing provisions for sound management of the environment, resulting in severe environmental pollution. The current urbanization trend of Dhaka would trigger the opportunities leading to further growth and development. The projected urban development of Dhaka resulting in increased influx of people, growth of infrastructural organization and investments would be accompanied by problems with magnitude and dimensions leading to expansion of environmental risks and hazards.

Air pollution is one of the most pervasive environmental problems in Dhaka city. Motor vehicles are important facility of transport as well as source of air pollution. Dhaka has less number of traffic vehicles in comparison to developed nation, but traffic vehicles are a significant source of air pollution in Dhaka because of the average older and poorly maintained vehicles, and low quality of fuel. Uncontrolled emission from motor vehicles have also been identified as one of the major causes of air pollution.

Two stroked 3-wheelers were the main contributors to air pollution in Dhaka. Recently, in 2003,  there has been a drastic change in the transportation system of Dhaka city, Government of Bangladesh has banned two stroked 3 wheeler and removed most of the old (>20 years) busses from the streets of Dhaka, introduced environment-friendly transports such as CNG-fuelled four-stroke three-wheeler and double decker bus. Due to this the air quality level of Dhaka has been changed significantly. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the changes in transportation system and its potential impacts on air pollutant emission, pollutant concentration and AQI (Air Quality Index) level in Dhaka city. The most concerning pollutant species producing from transportation facility are SOX, NOX, PM and CO. In this study the past and present traffic vehicle structure in Dhaka city are analyzed in details.

The AQI level in Dhaka, which represents the status of air quality and associated health effects, was calculated using the methodology developed by US EPA. The study finds that AQI value for most of the pollutants before 2003 was above 100 (e.g. AQI for April 2002 was 210 for NOx), but in 2003 AQI value reduced largely (e.g. AQI for April 2003 was only 32 for NOx). The study will provide useful information to the transport planners, traffic engineers and assist the policy makers to make both short term and long term action for preserving a better future environment in Dhaka city.

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